Understanding the Atomic Structure of Semiconductors and Their Role in Electronic Components

Observing the atomic structure diagram of a metallic copper conductor reveals that its outermost layer only has one electron. We call this electron a valence el...

Nov 22,2023 | Lareina

material productSemiconductor is a material product typically composed of silicon, with higher conductivity than insulators such as glass, but lower conductivity than pure conductors such as copper or aluminum. Impurities (known as doping) can be introduced to alter their conductivity and other properties to meet the specific needs of the electronic components they reside in.

Observing the atomic structure diagram of a metallic copper conductor reveals that its outermost layer only has one electron. We call this electron a valence electron because the attraction between the nucleus and the valence electron is relatively small.semiconductor testing Once attracted by external forces, this electron is easily detached from the atom and becomes a free electron. This is also the main reason why copper can become a conductor, Similarly, observing the atomic structure of insulators reveals that they typically have 8 valence electrons and are extremely stable. As the name suggests, semiconductors should be somewhere between the two. So what is their atomic structure like?

Observing the periodic table of elements reveals that the elements near the boundary between conductors and insulators are important materials for making semiconductors, such as silicon, Of course, the most influential observation of an atomic structure diagram reveals that its outermost layer has four electrons. To achieve equilibrium, either the four electrons are discarded or the four electrons are pulled closer together, while silicon atoms cleverly share the four electrons in the arrangement, forming a stable 8-electron structure,semiconductor failure analysis known as covalent bonds, So where does the conductivity of silicon come from? When the temperature is greater than absolute zero, electrons in the valence band may undergo a transition to free electrons, and a hole will be formed in the original position. That is to say, there will be an equal amount of free electrons and holes in the silicon crystal, which can all play a conductive role. This is the structure of pure semiconductors, also known as intrinsic semiconductors, Although perfect, to increase the conductivity of semiconductors, other elements need to be doped.

When we replace silicon atoms with 5-valent phosphorus atoms, we can increase the concentration of free electrons to obtain N-type semiconductors. Similarly, if we replace silicon atoms with boron atoms with only three electrons on the outermost layer and increase the concentration of holes, we can obtain P-type semiconductors. So what happens when we connect these two types of semiconductors together? The electrons in the N region urgently want to diffuse to the P region, and the holes in the P region desperately want to diffuse to the N region.aotomatic prober At this point, an "internal electric field" from N to P will be formed to prevent diffusion. After the two reach dynamic equilibrium, a space charge region will be formed at the interface. This is why PN junctions have unidirectional conductivity, which is a common diode, It is made by utilizing this characteristic, and using sunlight to irradiate the PN junction will stimulate the generation of electron holes. The separation of charges passing through the interface layer will form a photo generated electric field from P to N. This is the photo generated volt effect and the basic principle of solar cells.

The classic challenge faced by semiconductor companies is whether the market is driven by technology or by market driven technology. Investors should recognize that both are effective for the semiconductor industry.

material product solar cells phosphorus atoms

More Articles

What various manufacturers are there?
What various manufacturers are there?

What various manufacturers are there?Despite the wide variety of manufacturing businesses, the following 20 industries are n...

What features are considered smart cars
What features are considered smart cars

Nowadays, more and more models are equipped with smart features, and more and more companies like to emphasize intelligence ...

emergency collision intelligence

How can my iTunes ID and password be recovered?
How can my iTunes ID and password be recovered?

How can my iTunes ID and password be recovered?If you ve forgotten the password for your Apple ID, Go to Settings. Click on ...

Water Dispenser Manufacturers with Quality
Water Dispenser Manufacturers with Quality

If you are looking to buy a quality water dispenser for your office or home, you are on the right page. There are a lot of w...

instant water dispenser ceramic water dispenser mini water cooler dispenser

Do you know the main workflow of the waste lithium battery recycling and processing equipment?
Do you know the main workflow of the waste lithium battery recycling and process...

With the development of electric vehicles that popularize lithium-ion batteries as energy storage devices, the demand for li...

waste lithium battery lithium battery treatment technology

College students must have five types of abilities, with self-control ranking third and providing the most long-term benefits.
College students must have five types of abilities, with self-control ranking th...

Capability to learn on one s ownAfter entering university, you will discover that the university after-school time is very a...

Vacuum Casting:Mass Production of TWS Earphone design Made Possible
Vacuum Casting:Mass Production of TWS Earphone design Made Possible

To cater to the increasing demand for new TWS earphone designs, manufacturers are using methods like 3D printing and vacuum ...

TWS Earphone Appearance Model TWS earphone design

These phytonutrients are good for the body and show you their nutritional benefits!
These phytonutrients are good for the body and show you their nutritional benefi...

What phytonutrients are good for health?1, flavonoidsFlavonoids for general can exist in polyphenolic glycosides, its bioche...

flavonoids Terpenes Carotenoids