Life span and advantages and disadvantages of ternary material lithium batteries

What is a ternary lithium battery?In nature, lithium is the lightest metal with the smallest atomic mass. Its atomic weight is 6.94 g/mol, and ρ = 0.53 g/cm3. L...

Jan 17,2024 | Connie

lithium battery

What is a ternary lithium battery?

In nature, lithium is the lightest metal with the smallest atomic mass. Its atomic weight is 6.94 g/mol, and ρ = 0.53 g/cm3. Lithium is a reactive chemical that is prone to lose electrons and be oxidized to lithium ions. Therefore, the standard electrode potential is the most negative at -3.045 V and the electrochemical equivalent is the smallest at 0.26 GAH. Because of these properties, lithium is a material with high specific energy.lithium ion battery VS lead acid battery Ternary lithium batteries are lithium secondary batteries that utilize nickel-cobalt-manganese transition metal oxides as the anode material. Integrating the characteristics of lithium and cobalt with good cycling performance, high lithium-nickel specific capacity, high safety of lithium and manganese, low cost, etc., nickel and cobalt and other multiligand embedded lithium oxides are synthesized by molecular mixing, doping, coating and surface modification methods. This is a kind of lithium-ion battery which is widely researched and applied at present.

The service life of Li-ion ternary battery means that after a period of use, the capacity of the battery decays to 70% of the nominal capacity (the capacity of the battery at room temperature of 25℃ and standard atmospheric pressure, discharged at 0.2C), which means that the service life is terminated. In the industry, the cycle life is generally calculated by the number of cycles when the lithium battery is fully charged and discharged.lithium battery vs lead acid Li-ion batteries undergo irreversible electrochemical reactions during use, leading to a decrease in capacity, such as decomposition of the electrolyte, deactivation of the active material, and collapse of the positive and negative electrode structure, which results in a decrease in the number of embedded and de-embedded lithium ions. Experiments show that higher multiplicity discharge will lead to faster capacity decay, and if the discharge current is lower, the battery voltage will be close to the equilibrium voltage and more energy can be released.

The theoretical life of a lithium ternary battery is about 800 cycles, which is the middle of the theoretical life of commercial rechargeable lithium batteries. Lithium iron phosphate has about 2,000 cycles, while lithium titanate is said to reach 10,000 cycles. Currently, mainstream battery manufacturers promise more than 500 charge/discharge cycles (under standard conditions) for ternary battery specifications, but after the battery packs are made, their cycle life is about 400 cycles due to consistency issues, mainly that the voltage and internal resistance can not be exactly the same. It is recommended not to carry out deep charging and discharging, otherwise it will cause irreversible damage to the positive and negative structure of the battery. In addition, if the lithium-ion battery is often discharged at high speed and high temperature, the battery life will be greatly reduced to less than 200 times.

Advantages and disadvantages of lithium ternary batteries

The lithium ternary battery is a well-balanced battery with excellent overall technical performance in terms of capacity and safety research. The main influencing effects and advantages and disadvantages of the three different metal elements are analyzed as follows:

Co3+:It reduces the mixed cation occupancy, stabilizes the layered structure of the material, reduces the impedance value, increases the conductivity, and improves the cycling and multiplication performance.

Ni2+:It improves the capacity of the material (increases the bulk energy density of the material). However, since lithium and nickel have similar radii, too much nickel can lead to a mixed arrangement of lithium and nickel due to dislocations with lithium. The greater the concentration of nickel ions in the lithium layer, the more difficult it is for lithium to be inserted into the layered structure, resulting in poor electrochemical performance.

Mn4+:It can reduce the cost of the material as well as improve the safety and stability of the material. However, if the Mn content is too high, it is prone to the emergence of spinel phase, which will damage the lamellar structure, reduce capacity and cycle decay.

The biggest advantage of Li-ion ternary battery is high energy density, and the voltage platform is an important indicator of battery energy density, which determines the basic efficiency and cost of the battery. The higher the voltage plateau, the higher the specific capacity, so the same volume, weight or even the same ampere-hour battery has a longer battery life. The discharge voltage platform of a single lithium ternary battery is as high as 3.7V, lithium ferrous phosphate is 3.2V, and lithium titanate is only 2.3V Therefore, lithium ternary batteries have an absolute advantage over lithium ferrous phosphate, lithium manganese or lithium titanate in terms of energy density.

However, the poorer safety and shorter cycle economic life time of Li-ion ternary battery are its main shortcomings. Especially, the cyber security technology performance research has been a main influence factor of the enterprise limiting its large-scale distribution group and large-scale data integration system application. A large number of actual test results show that the larger capacity ternary battery management is difficult can be analyzed by analyzing the safety such as pinprick and overcharge as well as testing. This is also the large capacity battery in general we have to introduce more manganese elements or even mixed lithium manganate to learn to use together. 500 times of cycle life in lithium batteries belongs to the middle of the lower. Therefore, ternary lithium battery is currently the company's most important application service areas are 3C digital and other consumer electronic information products.

lithium battery economic life lithium titanate

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