World Health:The world s new coronavirus infection (COVID-19) has more than 5 million people killed in the world, with more than 5 million deaths on May 21, according to a figure compiled by Johns Hopkins University. The spread of infection on a global scale continues. In these serious situations, vaccine development to prevent inf...
Jul 28,2020 | Dolores
The world's new coronavirus infection (COVID-19) has more than 5 million people killed in the world, with more than 5 million deaths on May 21, according to a figure compiled by Johns Hopkins University. The spread of infection on a global scale continues. In these serious situations, vaccine development to prevent infection is actively underway around the world. According to a report on vaccine development released by the World Health Organization (WHO) in mid-May, 118 developments are underway, preceding eight vaccine candidates, including the United States, China and the United Kingdom, in clinical trials to confirm safety and efficacy. U.S. biotechnology firm Modelna announced on May 18 that it has confirmed neutralizing antibodies that can be expected to prevent infection, and is attracting attention in Japan.
Unlike therapeutic agents given only to patients, vaccines are widely administered to healthy people. For this reason, not only usefulness, it is a major premise to firmly confirm the safety. "I want you to develop vaccines as soon as possible." Many people around the world look forward to the emergence of safe and effective vaccines, but rapid development that relies on unreliable data is dangerous. "It still takes some time for vaccines to spread to countries around the world, including Japan." With that in mind, for the time being, there seems to be no choice but to thoroughly prevent infection from the national level to the individual level.
The New York stock market on Monday, May 18. The Dow rose more than $900 compared to the previous weekend. On the same day, Modelna announced a clinical trial result that consists of neutralizing antibodies in the blood that prevent infection in eight people who were vaccinated against the new coronavirus under development. U.S. media reported that the sharp rise in stock prices was largely due to expectations for vaccine development. It was a day that impressed me how high my expectations for vaccines to fight the new coronavirus were so great.
According to Modelna, the company developed the vaccine in collaboration with the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) and conducted a "phase 1 study" of a small-scale clinical trial in March. As a result of administering the vaccine twice at intervals of 28 days divided into 45 people in three groups, it is said that neutralization antibodies were formed in eight people after two weeks of administration. Neutralizing antibodies are antibodies that can be expected to prevent viral infection among antibodies. In response to this result, the company plans to start a phase 2 test to increase the number of people targeted to about 600, and to enter a large-scale phase 3 test around July. It is highly expected, but it cannot be said that the aim of practical use stood at this stage.
Vaccines create pseudo-infected conditions in the human body and prevent infections by acquiring immunity by the body. There are various types of vaccines. "Live vaccines" are used to weaken pathogenicity, and this type of rubella and BCG vaccines. It is an "inactivated vaccine" that eliminates pathogenicity and uses it, and this type of influenza vaccine.
Recently, research and development of "DNA vaccines" and "RNA vaccines" that use genes, and "recombinant protein vaccines" that use genetically modified proteins have been active. Modelna developed mRNA-1273, a vaccine that uses messenger RNA (mRNA), which uses some genetic information for viruses. It can be said that it is one of RNA vaccines.
MRNA is responsible for transmitting genetic information to the cell's "protein synthesis plant" to create a variety of proteins. The mRNA in the vaccine developed by Modelna contains information that creates a portion of the "spike protein" used by the new coronavirus to infect people. The spike protein is made to be made in the cell of the person who administers the vaccine. It then forces the immune system to recognize the virus and force it to attack when it enters the body. Expectations are high, but mRNA vaccines have never been approved or mass-produced. It's an unprecedented challenging attempt.
On May 15, the WHO released a report detailing the current state of vaccine development against the new coronavirus, which is currently advancing around the world. It is a valuable resource for knowing the development situation of each country. Of the 118 developments listed by the WHO, eight vaccine candidates were the previous examples.
As a precedent in the U.S., the company's name was mentioned by Modelna and innobio, the same U.S. company. The company began clinical trials of DNA vaccines in April. In China, there is a name for Shinovak Biotech (Sinovac Biotech, Shinaxing Holdings Technology), which developed inactivated vaccines. In Europe, The German bio-company Biontech is continuing to test RNA vaccines in collaboration with Pfizer, a U.S. pharmaceutical company. The University of Oxford is also on the way to the exam. The university is applying a technology that modifies the genes of harmless viruses to create viruses similar to the new coronavirus.
Japan's vaccine development was not included in the WHO's list of eight previous cases, but six vaccine candidates from the National Institute of Infectious Diseases, the Institute of Medical Science at the University of Tokyo, and Osaka University were also listed on the 110 list. It is expected in Japan as a "vaccine originating in Japan", but clinical trials have not begun though it has entered the stage of animal testing. The National Institute of Infectious Diseases is working with Shionogi Pharmaceutical to develop recombinant protein vaccines, and the University of Tokyo Medical Science Research Institute is developing vaccines using mRNA, aiming for early clinical trials.
On May 14th, when a state of emergency was declared nationwide, it was "Seedpox Day". The seed is a smallpox vaccination, which is believed to be the first day that British doctor Jenner was vaccinated against humans on this day in 1796. Jenner's vaccine development tip was a farmer's legend that "people who have cowpox, an infectious disease of cattle, do not get smallpox." This was the starting point of the vaccine, which was successful in increasing immunity to smallpox by infecting the mild cowpox. After that, the seeds spread around the world, and although it took time, the number of infected people gradually decreased, and who declared the eradication of smallpox in 1980.
In the case of smallpox, it took a long time from the attempt by Jenner to eradication. The times are quite different, and although they cannot be compared to the current state of international cooperation, they indicate that it takes time from the advent of vaccines to the eradication of viruses. Even if eradication cannot be done, "how to shorten the time from vaccine development to the end of the virus". It is the most important issue in confronting the new coronavirus, but close international cooperation is essential to shorten this time.
More than 100 vaccines have been developed just four months after the new coronavirus was identified in January, largely due to Chinese researchers deciphering the virus's genome and releasing the data immediately.
It's obvious that we have to gather the world's wisdom, whether it's a "battle" with the new coronavirus or coexistence and coexistence, but what worries me is the conflict between the United States and China over the virus. Relations between Washington, led by President Trump, who has set out a "Chinese-leaning" suspension of funding, and Beijing, which is seeking to expand international influence in the public health sector, continues to deteriorate.
As for vaccine development, many foreign media reported that the U.S. and China are scrambling to become "the best practical application." International cooperation and international cooperation should be indispensable for vaccines to be developed, spread to the world, including developing countries, and lead to the end of the virus, but the current situation is in jeopardy.
Yoshitake Yokokura, president of the Japan Medical Association, told a press conference at the Foreign Correspondents' Association of Japan on April 28 that "in my opinion, if effective vaccines are not developed, it will be difficult to hold the Tokyo Olympics and Paralympics. I would like you to hurry up the development of vaccines as much as possible."
The Olympic and Paralympic Games are a global event held with athletes from five continents around the world and with the support of a large number of spectators, including visitors from abroad. It was a convincing remark when I thought about it. Many Japanese are looking forward to this big event. However, the aim of putting the vaccine, which serves as a "trump card" for virus containment, has not yet stood.
President Trump has advocated a "Warp Speed Operation" to prepare vaccines by the end of the year with all military and civilians that mobilized pharmaceutical companies and the military. However, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and others are expected to take more than a year to put into practical use. "It will take at least a year and a half to be able to use the vaccine," fauch, director of NIAID, said in March.
Even if vaccines are developed, they must be widely used not only in the country but also in the world. In that case, how much amount is supplied becomes a big problem. Of course, the mass production system of the company and the government policy of the country that supports it are key, but international cooperation and international cooperation beyond "home policy" are also required here. We also need to establish priorities to distribute vaccines fairly and fairly.
A new type of coronavirus named "SARS-CoV2". And the vaccine that confronts this virus. If the vaccine allows "population immunity", people can be freed from "going out self-restraint and restrictions" and return to their normal lives. If vaccine development that gathers the wisdom of mankind can be realized and COVID-19 can be ended. There is no doubt that it will be an epoch-making event of this century, which is not only written in the history of science but also in world history.
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